This is ONE OF 4 responses to Vol 5 Cliff 2 ("Logic Test")...
I would first turn over the card "A" which is a vowel and expect to find an even number. That would demonstrate the rule worked for this card. Next I would turn over the card marked 3. If it were a vowel that would demonstrate the rule didn't work every time. And finally I might turn over the two on the off chance that it might be a vowel and act as additional weight to the correctness of the rule. Turning over the B is a lost cause because it proves nothing.
In looking for an answer to the second problem, I imagined myself at a scholarly cocktail party. Everybody is standing around talking or listening to someone else. I am told that there is at least one archeologist and at least one naturalist in this group. Knowing that one naturalist might play chess at some other time would't help me much except maybe to start a conversation by asking do you play chess and are you a naturalist. I would't be able to determine anything.
What does the book say bout that, other than some snide comments about a one track mind?